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【 專文 】

 北印度古典音樂
文/Ricardo Canzio   康嘉鐸教授  譯/張蘊

說起印度音樂,我們應該首先有個概念,就是印度音樂概括了兩種起源相同但最後分歧的音樂體系,也就是北印度的音樂與南印度的卡那提克音樂。雖然這兩種音樂源自同一個理論體系,兩種音樂從十六世紀印度莫臥兒帝國的建立開始出現迴異的風格表現。莫臥兒人是中亞帝國的創始者,統治了北印度大部分的地區,受到印度教文化藝術的吸引並鼓勵音樂發展。北印度的音樂因此出現在莫臥兒的宮廷中,因著莫臥兒的穆斯林背景,逐漸受到波斯文化影響。此類型的音樂流傳至今,統稱北印度音樂。

印度音樂由兩個主要概念組成,拉格(Rāga),也就是旋律,以及塔拉(Tāla),也就是節奏。

(1) 拉格 (Rāga
拉格包含上行與下行的音階,但遠遠超出音階的概念。在某些拉格中必須略過特定音符,而有些音符只能以固定的形式演奏。拉格具有相應的樂句,就像是一種調式,能夠喚起特定情感。此時,拉格就像是樂曲的樂章,透過拉格的格式表達樂句。

北印度音樂由七個音高組成:sa、re、ga、ma、pa、dha、ni,對應西洋音樂中的Do、Re、Mi、Fa、So、La、Ti,但Re、Mi、La、與Ti降半音而Fa升半音。整體而言,這幾個音高組成了西洋音樂中的十二個音高,然而印度與西洋音樂有許多音調上的差異。

印度音樂演奏的過程中,有一個持續音Do (sa)會不間斷地在背景中作為襯底。因此,拉格音樂中不會有轉調的情形,而每個演奏的音符都與持續音有固定的關係。

傳統上,不同的拉格音樂會在一日之中特定的時間演出,一天當中共八個時段、各個時段三小時,各有相應的拉格音樂。

印度音樂靠口耳相傳,尤其印度北部的樂曲往往包含大篇幅的即興演出。雖說是即興,不表示可以任意編造旋律,而是在拉格對於音律的規則範圍內,以及塔拉對於節奏的規範內自由發揮;拉格的規則對於演出者的創意發想有嚴格的限制與約束。

初學者若是吟唱或演奏了違反拉格規範的樂曲,老師會立即糾正學生並示範正確的樂句。這麼做是因為有些不同的拉格之間只有些微的差異。

(2) 塔拉(Tāla)
印度音樂中的節奏以「塔拉」表達。一首塔拉由一定的節拍重複演奏組成,最常見的是汀塔拉,由四組四拍、共十六拍的節奏組成,各組以拍手或手勢區隔。對西洋音樂有點概念的音樂家或許會覺得汀塔拉有點像4/4拍的節奏,但其實不然。塔拉是由鼓演奏的節奏與音色模式,每一拍都呈現不同的鼓聲。如同西洋音樂中數拍子的動作,印度音樂中,樂手會以拍手、揮手、甚至拍手背來表示一組節奏。

(這些聲響各以一個音節表示,因此塔拉的節奏與音色模式可以口傳或書寫紀錄。在表演中,常常可以看到鼓手吟唱富節奏的樂句,接著馬上以樂器演奏出來。

塔拉的第一個節拍叫做sam,是節奏循環中最重要的部分,是大部分樂句的開始。Sam的意思是「一起」,也就是獨奏者與塔布拉鼓手經過一個循環的即興演出後的會合之處。熟悉塔拉的聽眾將會感受到Sam使整個演出告一段落。辨認塔拉的能力很重要,因為這有助於聽眾對於獨奏者即興樂句的聆聽與理解。演出過程中,常常可以看到樂手在樂曲到達sam時以點頭表示。

除了古典的汀塔拉(4 + 4 + 4 + 4,共十六拍)之外,還有其他以不同節拍組成的塔拉,像是達德拉塔拉(3 + 3,共六拍)、魯帕塔拉(3 + 2 + 2,共七拍)、加坡塔拉(2 + 3 + 2 + 3,共十拍)、艾克塔拉(2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2,共十二拍)等。舉例而言,汀塔拉由三次拍手與一次揮手組成,而艾克塔拉則是四次拍手與兩次揮手。

(3) 演出(Performance)
卡雅是北印度音樂中最具代表性也最常演出的音樂類型。最典型的演出分為兩個部分:一個是沒有規律節拍的序曲(alap),是即興演出,由樂手自低音域逐漸往高音域帶出rāga的主樂句,另一個是主曲(gat),以塔布拉鼓在塔拉中呈現,包括固定旋律及變奏。演出包含主要樂句以及即興變奏,幾次不同的變奏後,演出會回到主要的樂句。

以上資訊能夠幫助聽眾在欣賞拉格音樂時,理解要留意的樂句。若用心聆聽,聽者可找到塔拉的節拍,進而體會欣賞印度音樂超越聽覺和知覺的旋律與節奏。

 Hindusthani Music

When we speak of Indian Music (印度音樂) we should be aware that we are treating as alike without regard for style two important musical systems that have the same origins but that have historically diverged. I am referring to the music of Northern India also known as Hindusthani Music and to the musical system prevalent in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent known as Carnatic music. Though based on the same theoretical foundations these two styles started to clearly differ around the 16th century with the establishment of the Moghul empire (莫臥兒帝國) in India. The Moghuls were the founders of the originally Central Asian dynasty that ruled most of Northern India. They were attracted to many artistic aspects of Hindu culture and encouraged the practice of music. The music of Northern India was thus brought to the Moghul courts and evolved within a Muslim cultural setting with Persian influences. It survives today in the form of Hindusthani music.

There are two central concepts around which Indian music (both Hindusthani and Carnatic) are structured: 1) Rāga which is concerned with melody (旋律) and 2) Tāla involving rhythm (節奏).

(1) Rāga
Rāga has the elements of a scale with a distinctive ascending and descending movement but it is more than a scale. In some Rāgas certain notes have to be avoided and still some others can be played only with a special movement. There are also typical phrases that will identify a rāga. In this sense a rāga is more like a mode (調式) because those phrases that define a rāga evoque (想起) a particular feeling. So it is melodic movement expressed in special phrases that count in a rāga.

The basic notes in Hindusthani music are seven: sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni correspoding to Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti of the European system but Re, Mi, La and Ti can be lowered (降半音) and Fa raised un semitone (升半音). So we end up with all the twelve notes also used in European music. However there are fine differences in pitch between the notes of Indian and European music.

During a performance of Indian Music there will be an instrument playing throughout the performance a continuous sound, a drone (持續音) on the note Do (sa). So in rāga music there is no modulation (轉調) and every note has a fixed relationship with the drone.

Rāgas are also traditionally assigned to a time of the day in which to be played so from early morning to late night in the eight watches of three hours of the day we can hear ragas with appropriate melodic material.

All Indian music is transmited orally and it is largely improvised specially in Northern India but improvisation here does not mean playing freely any melody but rather moving freely within the framework of the melodic rules of a rāga and the within the rhythmic structures of a tāla. It is important to remember that rāga imposes quite strict melodic movement to the creative spirit of the performer.

During the learning process if a beginner in front of his teacher will sing or play a phrase that somehow desfigures the meaning of particular rāga, his teacher will correct him and he will be shown a phrase that would be right in this context. This is important because there are Rāgas that differ little from each other but that are nevertheless different.

(2) Tāla
Rhythm is represented in Indian music by the concept tāla. A tāla consists of a fixed number of equal beats that repeats cyclically. The most common one is called tintal and consists of 16 beats arranged into four groups of four beats. Each group is clapped or marked with a gesture. Musicians with some notions of western music theory will tend to think that this is equivalent to four bars in 4/4 meter but this is not so. A tāla is a rhythmic and timbric (節奏與音色模式) formula played by the drums where every beat (拍) carries a different sound of the drum. Just as in Western music there are gestures marking every beat of a bar (數拍子) in Indian music we mark time by either beating (拍手) a group of beats or marking it by a wave of the hand (揮手) and in some cases by beating the back of the hand (拍手背).

These sounds are represented each by a syllable so the basic rhythmic and timbric formula of a tāla can be spoken and written down. We often hear during a performance the drummer speak a rhythmic phrase and immediately play it.

The first beat of a tāla is called sam and is the most important of the cycle because most phrases culminate on it. The meaning of the word sam is together and it is the point at which after a few cycles the improvising the soloist and the tabla player arrive together. There is usually a feeling of completion at that moment often clearly approved by an understanding audience. To be able to recognize a tāla is important because it organizes our listening and the comprehension of the improvised phrases of the soloist. It is often possible to see the performers nodding (點頭) when arriving together at the first beat of the cycle.

Besides the classic tintal (sixteen beats grouped 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 ), there are many other tālas with different number of beats and different groupings. We may mention dadra tal (six beats grouped 3 + 3), rupak tal (seven beats grouped 3 + 2 + 2), jhaptal (ten beats grouped 2 + 3 + 2 + 3), ektal (twelve beats grouped 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 ) and so on. For instance tintal has three claps and one wave, ektal has four claps and two waves and so on.

(3)Performance
Khayal which is the most played and typically representative genre of Hindusthani music consists, in its classical expression, of two main sections: (a) one without measured rhythm called alap which is improvised and in which the musician gradually introduces the main phrases of the rāga starting on the lower register and slowly moving to the upper register. And( b) a composition referred to as gat played in tāla accompanied by the tabla drums in which a fixed melody is presented and based on which variations are created. There is a main phrase that will be presented and then few improvised variations will be played. After a few variations the player will come back to the main phrase.

The few hints given above telling us where to direct our ears can help one identify a few phrases of the rāga. And even at first hearing with the attentive listening it is possible to follow the rhythm of tāla. In this way one could obtain a pleasure and an understanding of Indian music that goes beyond the simply auditive, sensorial impresions of a melody and rhythm.

Dr. Ricardo Canzio 康嘉鐸教授

出生於阿根廷,為台灣大學音樂學研究所退休教授。曾於瑞士巴賽爾大學、法國巴黎大學教授民族音樂學。康教授原習演奏及作曲,他在瓦拉納西(印度)學習梵文,印度哲學和宗教以及印度音樂。1979年獲倫敦大學亞非學院博士。

Dr. Ricardo Canzio is a retired professor of Musicology at National Taiwan University. He has also taught ethnomusicology at the Universities of Basel (Switzerland) and Paris (France). His early training was as a player and a composer. He studied Sanskrit, Indian Philosophy and Religions and Indian Music in Benares (India) and received his Ph.D. from the School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London in 1979.

♦《 北印樂宴 》
    10.19(四)19:30-21:00
  • 地點:藝文中心視聽館
  • 表演者:
    Abhiman Kaushal (塔布拉鼓 Tabla)
    Yoshida Daikiti (西塔琴 Sitar)
    Ryohei Kanemitsu (Yo)金光亮平 (西塔琴 Sitar)
線上報名 Register

♦ Night of Hindusthani Music

Thu. 19 Sep. 2017
19:30-21:00
  • Venue: Audiovisual Theater, NCCU Art & Culture Center
  • Performer: Abhiman Kaushal (Tabla)
    Yoshida Daikiti (Sitar)
    Ryohei Kanemitsu (Yo) (Sitar)


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